rikson's theory of psychosocial development identifies eight stages in which a healthy individual should pass through from birth to death. At each stages we encounter different needs, ask new questions and meet people who influence our behavior and learning.
Dietrich Bonhoeffer argued that stupid people are more dangerous than evil ones. This is because while we can protest against or fight evil people, against stupid ones we are defenseless — reasons fall on dead ears.
Introversion and extroversion (or extraversion) are terms first coined by psychiatrist Carl Gustav Jung in Switzerland of the 1920s. According to Jung, an extrovert seeks intensive contact with the outside world. An introvert instead turns the psychic energy inwards.
Psychotherapy holds out the promise of being able to help us with many of the problems that ruin our lives: anxiety, self-hatred, shame and confusion... But how exactly does it work? On what basis can it help us?
Lawrence Kohlberg's theory claims that our development of moral reasoning happens in six stages: 1. Obedience and Punishment, 2. Self-interest 3. Interpersonal Accord and Conformity 4.Authority and maintaining social order, 5.Social Contract, 6.Universal Ethical principles.
Classical conditioning is a mental manipulation to reprogram natural body functions. It is a way of learning where a stimulus that triggers a biological response is paired with a new stimulus that then results in the same reaction.
Working in Vienna at the turn of the 20th century, he began his career as a neurologist before pioneering the discipline of psychoanalysis, and his influence towers above that of all other psychologists in the public eye. But was Sigmund Freud right about human nature? And were his methods scientific?
Vygotsky’s Theory of Social Development argues that community and language play a central part in learning. Vygotsky believed that children develop independently of specific stages as a result of social interactions.
John B. Watson famously claimed that if he were to be given a dozen healthy infants, he could shape them into anything; doctors, lawyers, artists, beggars, or thieves, regardless of their background or genetic predispositions.